Getting sound indicators across languages

Given that ECHO compares different healthcare systems, which use different classification systems, there is a need of construction “crosswalks” across the different national coding languages (see Table). ECHO crosswalks have been developed taking using ICD-9-CM as the classification of reference (the aforementioned initiatives were also based on this classification system) and subsequently face-validated in each participanting country.

Boxes below give access to the ECHO performance indicators, their rationale within the ECHO performance framework, their definition and corresponding crosswalks, and some insigth on their adequate use.



Select an indicator













Please cite this publication as:

If you use ECHO indicators, please be aware of the copyright*, and quote the coding crosswalks properly. We suggest using the following citation:

European Collaboration for Healthcare Optimization (ECHO) Zaragoza (Spain): Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud - Instituto Investigación Sanitaria Aragón; c2011. ECHO consortium. Handbook on methodology: ECHO indicators; 2014 Apr 27 [ accessed: date ]; Available from:

Coding classifications and practices are expected to be continuously updated. Please help us to improve our coding maps by sending your input to:


* Any material created by the author is subject to copyright protection. Any duplication or use of the crosswalks in other electronic or print publications without the author´s consent is strictly prohibited.

















This project is funded by the Framework 7
Programme of the European Union

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